The global engineering market is defined through services relating to the application of advanced mathematics, sciences, social sciences, skills, experience and professional knowledge to design and realize practical solutions for clients that could include buildings, structures, equipment, industrial processes, products, civil, environmental and social projects, programs, and other initiatives. Engineering is a broadly-applied term for services rendered to customers in the pharmaceuticals, medical, life sciences, building and construction, architecture, automotive, aviation and aerospace, research and development (R&D), equipment manufacturing, product manufacturing, semiconductor, electronics, defense, specialty chemicals, oil & gas, and utilities industries as well as entire market sectors in government services and energy.
In many contexts, the term engineering can refer more specifically to civil engineering. The professional field of civil engineering concerns the design, building and project management of buildings, structures, edifices, and man-made environments as well as the restoration and maintenance of natural environments.
Engineering services in the market are commonly rendered in the format of a project or contract, with the completed construction of a building or design and fabrication of a prototype device, machine, vehicle or technology as the stipulated result of the agreement. Employment in engineering can include multiple projects and products, but is typically defined by projects articulated as problem solving achieved through testing. In the modern day, engineering is accomplished through computer aided design (CAD), other modeling tools and mathematical techniques, demographic data collection and manipulation, forensics, simulations, prototypes, scale models and various testing methods measuring structural stresses and effects on materials and products.